The Leishmaniose American Tegumentar

Protozorios of the Leishmania sort is parasitic responsible for causing leishmaniose in human beings and animal. Studies epidemiologists show that annually more than 1,5 million people are infectadas and about 350 million people they run risk to contract the illness. Leishmanioses is gifts in more than 88 countries and because of the high indices of morbidade and mortality, the World-wide Organization of Sade (OMS) included leishmanioses enters the six endemic illnesses of bigger relevance in the world (WHO, 2009). In Brazil, the illness is considered of obligatory notification, being present in all the Brazilian states, mainly in the regions North, Northeast and Center-West, with annual incidence of more than 23,000 new cases (BRAZIL, 2010). Classified inside of the Kinetoplastida order, Trypanosomatidae family, the Leishmania sort more than groups 20 species of responsible unicellular protozorios for causing the illness. Amongst the hosts the invertebrates have themselves and vertebrates. The invertebrate hosts, or vectors of Leishmania, are hematfagos insects known as flebotomneos, of the sorts Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. Already the vertebrate hosts include a great variety of mammals, being the most common rodents and the candeos, but also they can appear endentados, the marsupials, prociondeos, ungulados and primate, including man (ASHFORD, 2000; ALMEIDA et al., 2003; BLACKBERRY et al., 2009; LAINSON & SHAW, 1987).

Different clinical manifestations in leishmanioses exist and these are related with the species of the parasite and the immune reply of the host, having been able the individual to present since the spontaneous cure of the illness until serious forms that lead to the death. In Brazil, the more prevalent clinical form is Leishmaniose American Tegumentar (LTA), that a polimrfica and spectral disease of the skin and the mucosae is considered (BRAZIL, 2010). The species associates with this clinical form belong the two subgenera: (1) Viannia, represented for the species Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, associates with cutaneous injuries located (LCL) or spread (LCD) and mucocutneas injuries (LCM) and (2) Leishmania, represented for the species Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, associate with the development of located cutaneous injuries or with the diffuse cutaneous form (LCDf) (GONTIJO & OAK, 2003, CONSUELO, DAVID & CRAFT, 2009). The cycle of transmission of the illness starts when female of fleblotomnios they make sanguineous its repasto in infectados hosts and ingest cells I contend the parasites. Inside of the intestine of the vector, the parasites changed into procyclical forms promastigotas that they are talked back intensely, they pass for a process of metaciclognese, acquiring the capacity of infectar, and migram for the probcida of the insect vector, being able then, during new repasto sanguineous, to be inoculated in the host. The forms promastigotas in the host are internalizadas by the cells of the fagoctico system mononuclear, especially the macrophages.